Apart from diplomatic options, India is also exploring legal remedies permitted under Pakistan's legal system.
The Times of India reported that the government on Friday cancelled the talks on maritime security between the two countries scheduled for 17 April.
Coast Guard sources said the Ministry of Defence has not given clearance for the delegation's visit.
Jadhav was tried for alleged espionage and sabotage by a Field General Court Martial and handed the death sentence for his involvement in various anti-state activities.
The development came amid tension between the two countries over Jadhav's death sentence and a day after India criticised Pakistan for not disclosing his location as well as not giving consular access to him as per global conventions, despite repeated requests.
Pakistan claims its security forces arrested Jadhav in the restive Balochistan province March 3, 2016, after he reportedly entered from Iran.
India had acknowledged that Jadhav had served with the navy but denied that he has any connection with the government.
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A military court in Pakistan earlier this week found Jadhav guilty on two counts of espionage and sentenced him to death. Pakistani officials suspect that Indian spy agencies were behind his disappearance.
India followed it up by placing three demands as it asked for consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav and a detailed copy of military court's verdict.
"You can not be in the forefront of both demanding the stopping of Jadhav's hanging by Pakistan state and supporting and celebrating capital punishment by the Indian state. Till we know what is in the charge-sheet and the verdict, how can we appeal?"
Furthermore, arrests and raids done by Pakistan security agencies on Jadhav's tip-offs are also shared in it with detail.
"Inflammatory statements and rhetoric about "pre-meditated murder" and "unrest in Balochistan" will only result in escalation, serving no useful objective", Radio Pakistan quoted Aziz as saying.
Singh, former Army chief, said the nation was quite clear on its stand that the allegations against Jadhav were baseless. The government is also likely to review its attempts in the past few months to encourage people to people contacts with Pakistan.