Over the past two months, Nyanzi has, in several colorfully worded Facebook posts slammed both president Museveni and his wife Janet, who doubles as Uganda's minister of education.
The central point of contention between Dr. Nyanzi and the Museveni household was the supposed negation by the regime of state responsibility to provide young Ugandan girls of primary and secondary age the basic necessities of life, such as menstrual period sanitary pads.
Police over the weekend arrested Nyanzi and said she would be charged with cyber harassment and offensive communication that all lie in the Computer Misuse Act of 2011.
The charges are based on Nyanzi's social media statements, including one where she referred to President Museveni as, amongst other things, "a pair of buttocks".
"The arrest and criminal charges brought against Dr. Nyanzi are yet another clear indicator that those who express critical views of the government can face its wrath", Burnett said.
University lecturer Dr Stella Nyanzi, 42, has raised eyebrows in the conservative country for sexually explicit social media posts in which she has frequently criticised the president and his wife.
Many Ugandan girls are reported to drop out of school because of the shame they feel for lacking sanitary pads. She remains in custody pending a bail hearing. In that case, she went up against internationally renowned Mahmood Mamdani, executive director of the Makerere Institute of Social Research.
Nyanzi appeared in a court in Kampala on Monday, where she was charged with making a remark that was "obscene or indecent". "Matako butako", Stella Nyanzi's post read.
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Efforts to silence Ms. Nyanzi ramped up after Nyanzi criticised the policies of Education Minister and First Lady Janet Museveni on February 15.
In her customary graphic language, Ms Nyanzi accused the first lady of being out of touch with reality.
"He makes promises of sanitary pads to girls".
However, she was then arrested last Friday.
Apart from the charges, the state prosecution has also made a request to court seeking to ascertain her state of mind, leading to fears she could be sent to a psychiatric ward.
But when Magistrate James Eremye asked Nyanzi whether she pleads guilty to the offenses she instead questioned the court about who was offended and pleaded not guilty.
"Dr. Nyanzi is within her constitutional rights and we are for an all-out legal battle with the state to defend her rights".