Speaking at the Loren Cook Company factory, Trump promised a tax reform plan that would lead businesses to bring millions of jobs back to the U.S.
Schumer says Republicans shouldn't use "fuzzy math or brazenly partisan estimates" to claim their tax plan wouldn't add to deficits.
Trump says in Springfield, Missouri, that his tax overhaul plan will be "pro-growth, pro-jobs, pro-worker and pro-American".
Loren Cook, which was established in 1941, describes itself as a "leader in the design and manufacturing of fans, blowers, gravity vents, laboratory exhaust systems, and energy recovery ventilators".
"It could be an excellent touchstone for lawmakers as they return after Labor Day (next Monday), laying out a marker saying there's an urgency for this to be among the first orders of business when we return", said Representative Peter Roskam, Republican chairman of the House Ways and Means tax policy subcommittee.
The venue has significance to Trump's pledge to American workers, the White House said.
Tax reform was a major campaign promise for Trump and his Republican allies in Congress previous year.
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But an administration official said Trump's speech in the Midwest state would make the case for why America needs tax reform, rather than the nitty gritty of what he wants to change. USA business leaders are urging action among Republicans to level the competitive playing field for American companies through a tax code overhaul.
Trump also took a few stabs at the hard argument that cutting corporate rates would lead to job creation and benefits for people other than just the very rich. Claire McCaskill (D-MO) out of office if she refused to support slashing the corporate tax rate.
Republicans quickly embraced Trump's pitch, vowing to work with the president to get a tax rewrite to his desk.
"I think Congress is going to make a comeback", he said.
Tax reform is a top priority for Trump this year, and the president characterized the current political environment as a "once-in-a-generation opportunity" to accomplish the tax-code overhaul that's eluded Washington for more than three decades. "I hope so. I tell you what, the United States is counting on it".
Trump's pitch leaned heavily on the economic benefits he said tax reform could deliver and aimed to get ahead of Democratic criticism that Trump's tax reform plans would disproportionately benefit the wealthiest Americans, as independent tax experts have estimated.